In principle, it is conceivable in almost all disciplines, albeit to varying degrees, that research results and methods are misused by third parties with harmful intentions. In addition to the classic dual–use examples in nuclear and pathogen research, materials research and nanotechnology could contribute to the development of weapons of war; research on autonomously acting industrial and household robots may enable the construction of intelligent combat robots. Analyses in molecular plant genetics for breeding purposes could enable targeted attacks on seeds. Research in information technology, such as on motion analysis and biometrics, could be used for widespread surveillance and repression of individuals, thereby limiting human rights. To improve cybersecurity, researchers often intentionally develop compromising hardware and software and break encryption procedures. Psychological, medical, or neurobiological research could support manipulation of individuals to the point of aggressive interrogation techniques and torture. Linguistic research on speech recognition systems may also be applicable to abusive communications surveillance. Ultimately, even humanities, cultural, social and behavioral sciences could produce security-relevant results. This list can be extended almost indefinitely.